Saturday, December 28, 2019

Common Failings of Big Data Analysis - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1239 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category IT Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Common failings of Big Data analysis: There are numerous examples of how Big Data can be used to forecast the publics reaction when it comes to box office receipts, sale of consumer goods and the outcome of certain events such as American Idol. However, even in the case of the of predicting something as ridiculously inane as American Idol there are qualifications that need to be made about the use of the data collected. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“As many authors have pointed out, there are several challenges one must face when dealing with data of this nature: intrinsic biases, uneven sampling across location of interest etc.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  American Idol. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Common Failings of Big Data Analysis" essay for you Create order While the experiment in american idol is largely viewed as success it concludes that the open source data available on the web can be used to make educated guesses on the outcome of societal events. Surely an educated guess is nothing to get excited about. This section of the paper points attempts to bring to light the failings in analysis of data sourced from social media such as twitter or from search terms used in Google searches. We focus on three distinct areas which have attempted to use these sources of information to predict future outcomes of some event. These areas are: Elections Flu Trends Stock Market trends Elections: Shortly after the 2010 US general elections flamboyant statements made it to the news media headlines, from those arguing that Twitter is not a reliable predictor to those claiming the opposite (How not to predict elections). It has been claimed that Twitter can predict the outcome of elections with great accuracy. Given the significant differences in the demographics between likely voters and users of social networks questions arise on what is the underlying operating principle enabling these predictions (How not to predict elections). As is reported by à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“How not to predict electionsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  the degree of accuracy in these claims is recorded in terms of percentage of correctly guessed electoral races without any further qualification at all. When these predictions are reported they are often not compared against results which were arrived at by more traditional means. For instance in the 2008 US congressional elections the incumbent in w on 91.6 % of the time and in 2010 they won 84% of the time. By using this parameter that the incumbent wins about 9 times out of ten any random member of the public could walk off the street and predict 90% of US congressional elections at very little cost. A Livne, M Simmons, E Adar and L Adamic, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The Party is over here structure and content in the 2010 Electionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  used tweets sent by electoral candidates to build a model that was claimed would predict à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“a candidate will win with accuracy of 88%.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Taken out of context this might seem strong but compared with the strike rate for using incumbency as the only parameter it seems a lot of work for little in the way of tangible results, or as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“How not to predict elections put ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“even when predictions were better than chance they were not competent when compared to the trivial method of predicting through incumbencyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . T amasjan et al who carried similar work out in Germany found that twitter is used to spread political opinion discuss politics and that sentiment profiles of politicians and parties reflect nuances of the election campaign and that the mere volume of messages reflects the election result and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“even comes close to traditional election polesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . It seems as if pollsters have nothing to worry about in terms of employment. A major issue with social media data where general elections are concerned is that the people tweeting cannot be identified as likely voters. To identify likely voters a correct sample from Twitter would have to should be able to identify the age range, voting eligibility and prior voting patterns (How not to predict elections). Obtaining this information is not possible without violating the privacy of the users, a particularly hot topic of debate for social media providers at the moment. There are certainly voters who do not tweet and giv en the age range of likely voters in the US (in 2000 36% of citizens aged between 18 and 24 voted, 50% of citizens between 25 and 50 voted and 68% of those over 35 voted) while we have no supporting information weà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ll put our reputations on the line and say as age increases in todays population the proportion of social media users probably declines while the exact opposite happens to the proportion of likely voters as age increases. This cannot be good for the accuracy of election prediction by data gathered from social media. It should also be noted that it is easy to manipulate social media data. Far be it from me to suggest that politicians are capable of sucas this headline and exerpt from the Technology Review June 2012 demonstrates there are those who will stop at nothing to win. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Twitter Mischief Plagues Mexicoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s General Election, The top contenders in Mexicoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s presidential campaign are engaged in a Twitter s pam war, with armies of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“botsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  programmed to cast aspersions on opposing candidates and disrupt their social-media efforts. This large-scale political spamming could foreshadow online antics that campaigners may increasingly resort to in other countries.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Flu Trends: Google Flu Trends (GFT) was launched in November 2008 and is based on the fact that Google users regularly use google to search for advice on health issues. By analysing the search terms from users Google attempts to predict flu trends. The Swine Flu pandemic of 2009 provided the first opportunity to evaluate the performance of GFT models during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. GFT missed it. As well as this GFT overestimated the prevalence of flu in the 2012à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"2013 season and overshot the actual level in 2011à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"2012 by more than 50%. From 21 August 2011 to 1 September 2013, GFT reported overly high flu prevalence 100 out of 108 weeks (T he Parable of Google Flu Trends). In February 2013, Google Flu Trends (GFT) made headlines but not for a reason that Google Executives or the creator of the flu tracking system (The parable of the Google Flu Trends). Nature reported that GFT was predicting more than double the proportion of doctor visits for influenza-like illness than the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which bases its estimates on surveillance reports from laboratories across the United States (D. Butler, Nature 494, 155 (2013) D. R. Olson et al., PLOS Comput. Biol. 9, e1003256 (2013)). This happened despite the fact that GFT was built to predict CDC reports (Parable of Google Flu Trends). In the Parable of Google Flu Trends, Lazer et al refer to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Big Data Hubrisà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  as being the implicit assumption that Big Data are a substitute for rather than a supplement to traditional data collection and go on to highlight that quantity alone does not mean one can ignore the foundational issues such as measurement, construct validity and dependencies among data. Like in the previous section on elections it seems that data gathered through social media does not yet compare to the tried and tested methods. Lazer et al took GFTà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s main problem appears to be that it relies on the public to know what the symptoms of the flu are. If someone googles flu symptoms they may just have a cold. For conclusion: While people tweeting, expressing an opinion or searching about a product or a movie are more than likely the target market and a good indication of a future purchase the same cannot be said of elections. Where the customer has self selected as a customer a voter has not.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Sex, Religion, And Gender - 1073 Words

In today society, we all have different opinions on sex, religion, and gender. And sometimes our values are more powerful than our opinions; as the world becomes more open about sexual orientation and desires. Those values that we protect and live by can get through out of the window or they can become more susceptible. To intrigue my curiosity, I asked five different subjects a set of five questions. And all subjects are different ages, gender, and relationship status. The five questions are â€Å"What do you look for in a partner,† â€Å"Do you believe in premarital sex,† â€Å"What is your opinion on cheating,† â€Å"What is your opinion on transgender people,† and â€Å"Do you know what Coitus Interruptus is ?† Many of us have different ideas of the perfect partner. Some people want their partner to be smart, classy, and kind. While others are more concern about what they look like and how much money do they have? And I have met people who are just looking for a sexual relationship. Subject one is a twenty-four year single female; her ideal partner is tall, good-looking, good hygiene, a nice set of teeth, and he has to have a good job. Subject one just describes the perfect male model. Although, looks are important; I think that there is more to a man than looks. What happen to kind, smart, honesty? I guess in my generation; we are more concern about the outside features and not the inside feature. Subject two is a sixty year old married female; her ideal partner is a family man, nice,Show MoreRelatedLove, Sex and Gender in the World Religions Essay4945 Words   |  20 PagesLove, Sex and Gender in the World Religions Edited by Joseph Runzo and Nancy Martin Introduction Two forces which gathered strength in the last half of the twentieth century now dominate the world religions at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The first is the globalization of religions and their resulting encounter with each other, and the second is the need to redefine attitudes toward gender as women have stepped forward to insist that their full humanity be acknowledgedRead MoreAltruism s Relation With Sex, Gender, Religion, And Class908 Words   |  4 Pages Altruism’s Relation with Sex, Gender, Religion, and Class Introduction Altruism can defined as acting to promote another person’s wellbeing over one’s own. Hopefully, most people are impacted by an altruistic person at some point in their lives. Sometimes altruism affects people more often than others. Most everyone has various encounters with members of a different sex, gender, religion, or class on a daily basis. When you combine these categories, it is found that this topic relates to mostRead MoreMonotheistic religions, especially Judaism, Christianity, and Islam promote the belief in One God;1600 Words   |  7 PagesMonotheistic religions, especially Judaism, Christianity, and Islam promote the belief in One God; all that exists is because of God. Through prophets and scripture, God portrays moral goodness and truth. Essentially, these three religions believe that God speaks to us, unveils God’s Being, and seeks to guide us through life. In turn, humans should embody the moral goodness and excellence that is revealed to us b y God. These religions are taught based upon both scripture and reason. When readingRead MoreGender Differences Between Gender And Sex1334 Words   |  6 Pageswhat their whole life and purpose is, because they cannot be placed in one of the two socially accepted gender categories- male or female. This idea or â€Å"disorder†(Medical Dictionary) is commonly known as being transgender. I do not think that there are only two categories for gender; I believe that there are people who are not considered to be only male or female, but both. Due to different religions, influences, social structures, and expectations, people can be put into hiding and therefore neverRead MoreSocio-Cultural Influences On Sexuality. Socio-Cultural1156 Words   |  5 Pagesorder for women and men. Sexuality leads to one’s gender identity and sexual preference. Over the years, sexuality has changed and is continuously changing. It can fit to say that society regulates the sexuality of its people. For example each society have different standards or rules for beliefs, values, practices, parts and behaviors. From early, individuals are taught of many ways to express their sexuality through their families, media and religion. The objective of this paper is to examine socio-culturalRead MoreThe Role Of Family, Religion, And Family Shape The Experiences Of Young Black Men892 Words   |  4 Pages A. M., Viall, A. H., Heffelfinger, J. D., Mena, L. A., Toledo, C. A. (2012). Role flexing: How community, religion, and family shape the experiences of young black men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 26(12), 73-737. This journal article explores the role that family, religion and the African American community plays on the experiences of young black men who have sex with other men through in-depth interviews. Interviews were conducted from sixteen participants. Seven participantsRead MoreThe Banning Of Movies On Lgbt, Religion, Laws, And History1532 Words   |  7 Pagesattitudes and views of various cultures towards LGBT, namely religion, laws, and history. Religion has a big influence on the attitudes of certain cultures towards LGBTQ community. The three main religions, Abrahamic religions, Indic religions and Sinic religions, all have different views towards homosexuality for various reasons. Abrahamic religions such as Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, have negative views of homosexuality. Since their religion is based on the teachings of their holy scriptures, mostRead MoreThe Third Sex in Eastern Civilization1357 Words   |  6 Pageslooking at certain topic such as Gender, sex and religion. Gender is defined as the cultural, behavioral, or psychological characteristics, typically belonging to one sex. Sex is the behavioral, functional and Structural characteristics that distinguish males from females; it is also the act of people (or animals) attempting to sexually reproduce. Western civilizations and religions have always been strict and less accepting when it comes to the conversation of gender and sex. 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Howe ver, public education has ultimately been the main factor in maintaining my personal safe sex life. Many parents debate whether sex education should remain in

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Academic And Professional Skills Paid Employment

Question: Discuss about theAcademic And Professional Skillsfor Paid Employment. Answer: Introduction A steady rise has been noticed in the employment of the college students in a country. This early phase of employment among students has been resultant of various factors that prevail in the life of the individuals (Robotham, 2012). Due to the issues that prevail in their lives, the students have agreed to all forms of jobs that are being offered to them. With the involvement in employment of the students, there is a severe impact on the academic achievement by them. It could be stated that there is an adverse impact on their academics, which exacerbates the issues of poor performance of the students (Darolia, 2014). According to this essay, the argument is based on the different effects of employment on student. It discusses the impacts of employment of a student on its academic life. This would help in getting a clear view of the consequences that are faced by the students in by accepting employment along with academics. Body Students at a high rate have identified the higher educational costs of the country as one of the basic reasons for accepting employment offers. With the rise in the expense of higher studies, financial necessities and supporting their lifestyle along with the accumulation of work experience gained, the students are more engrossed in accepting various employment opportunities. This would help in overcoming their costs of education along with maintenance of their lifestyle (Hunt, Lincoln Walker, 2004). By accepting the job opportunities, there are various adverse impacts on the academic achievement of the student. 29 % of the students have been involved in working for 20 hours per week, whereas some of the are involved in full time and half time jobs. These students do not get ample hours to devote on their academics. Hence, a negative relation is seen between the working hours provided by the student and their academic performance. One of the major factors that affect the positive o r negative effects of employment on the academic performance if the students is their GPA scores. The students who are working devote their time and energy at their work, which provides quite less time for them o concentrate on their studies. This shows a negative impact on the GPA scores of the student (Bettinger, Boatman Long, 2013). This has raised a matter of awareness among the institutions and the professionals who aim at guiding and mentoring the students. Achieving a degree after the completion of a particular academic program is one of the great assets that a student experiences in its life. This degree helps the student in grabbing various job opportunities that would help them in progressing through their future path. Yet, with the rise in the competitive level among the individuals for attaining their dream jobs, and with the lower employment opportunities, it is not enough for an individual to secure job with the help of a certificate. The student has to undergo various level of competition in order to secure a job for him or herself (Barron Anastasiadou, 2009). One of the best ways of adding value to their curriculum vitae is by attaining a job experience while studying. It is quite profitable for a person with job experience to secure a job, as he the company would not have to spend much on the training program for the individual. He would be accustomed regarding the working atmosphere of the firm. Hence, students find it usef ul for them to attain a part time job for themselves in their own filed. This helps them in gaining a practical approach to their experiences. It helps in attaining the soft skills in that particular field, helps the student in making themselves more employable, enhance their applicability, possibility of leading to better jobs. These advantages would be only achievable when the job that is agreed upon by the student belongs to their own subject field. If the opposite happens, and the student does not choose a job, which belongs to his or her genre, then there would be a complete time and talent loss (Xu Jaggars, 2013). The experience that would have been gained would not be efficient enough to enhance the skills o the individual. Hence, there must be a clever selection of the job that would be opted by the students while studying. One of the most efficient ways of working while studying is to maintain balance between the two parts. Many students are of the opinion that they are able to maintain a balance between their work life d academic life. This balance is maintained by dividing their hours into two equal parts, which helps them in achieving the best of both the worlds. By applying for jobs in their own field, the students are able to enhance their skills in a better manner, which helps them analyse their practical knowledge along with their theoretical knowledge (Holmes, 2008). This would help them in upgrading their academic performances in a better way. Yet, there are issues, where students are unable to handle the pressure of both the sides. They pay too much attention at work, which provides them with too little time to study. This affects their academic score. It neither helps them in analysing their skills neither helps them in gaining better grades in studies (Applegate Daly, 2006). Hence, it is q uite vital or the student to make the correct selection of jobs along with the most effective balance between work and studies. Conclusion Increase in financial costs, living costs, lifestyle maintenance and rise in the cost of higher education, it has become quite important for the students to work for their living besides their studies. This work could be fixed number of hours a week, part time or full time jobs. The students feel quite confident while working along with their academics. It helps them raise their soft skills, and work experience, helps in analysing the future job prospects better and gain practical knowledge regarding their own field subjects. Yet, every opportunity comes along with a opportunity cost. The opportunities of analysing the benefits from working for students, comes along with the problem of throwing a negative impact on the grades that are achieved by the individuals. If there exist no work life and academic life balance in the students final, then there are high chances of spoiling their grades. Working students tend to have worse grades than those who are non working peers. However, eff iciency can be raised by working along with studying, when the individual chooses the correct job and a balance is maintained in the number of hours devoted at both the segments. Reference Applegate, C., Daly, A. (2006). The impact of paid work on the academic performance of students: A case study from the University of Canberra.Australian Journal of Education,50(2), 155-166. Barron, P., Anastasiadou, C. (2009). Student part-time employment: Implications, challenges and opportunities for higher education.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,21(2), 140-153. Bettinger, E. P., Boatman, A., Long, B. T. (2013). Student supports: Developmental education and other academic programs.The Future of Children,23(1), 93-115. Darolia, R. (2014). Working (and studying) day and night: Heterogeneous effects of working on the academic performance of full-time and part-time students.Economics of Education Review,38, 38-50. Holmes, V. (2008). Working to live: Why university students balance full-time study and employment.Education+ Training,50(4), 305-314. Hunt, A., Lincoln, I., Walker, A. (2004). Term-time employment and academic attainment: evidence from a large-scale survey of undergraduates at Northumbria University.Journal of Further and Higher Education,28(1), 3-18. Robotham, D. (2012). Student part-time employment: characteristics and consequences.Education+ Training,54(1), 65-75. Xu, D., Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to Online Learning: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas. CCRC Working Paper No. 54.Community College Research Center, Columbia University.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Types And Nature Of Foreign Aid Economics Essay free essay sample

The decrease of the strategic importance of foreign assistance has been reinforced by the terminal of the Cold War which led to its decreasing flows in the 1990s. Though the measure of assistance has decreased significantly, the sum of assistance bureaus has been seen to hit up from about 7 in 1960 to around 50 by the 1990s. The many-sided establishments, most significantly being the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have taken a slightly distinguished right over the financial policies of the underdeveloped universe. These organisations enforce steadfast fortunes on the beneficiary states and intimidate them to retreat assistance if the provinces of personal businesss promised to them are non fulfilled. To some grade, assistance flows have encouraged growing and structural alteration in the beneficiary states, peculiarly in the period of natural catastrophes and post-war Reconstruction. However, it is explicitly stated that the deductions of foreign assistance on growing and enlargement are unequal since foreign assistance is often aimed at political and military Fieldss in contrast to human development ( Hang Le and Ataullah, 2007 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Types And Nature Of Foreign Aid Economics Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 2.2.3 Types and nature of foreign assistance Foreign assistance has an highly diverse and heterogenous nature. We can non give a individual figure to it and analyse the whole state of affairs based on merely one figure ( Mavrotas, 2002 ) . Beginnings of foreign assistance At least four different classs of assistance are presented in literature: undertaking assistance with a instead drawn-out gestation period, proficient aid, and nutrient assistance and other trade good assistance which adds straight to ingestion. To these four types of foreign assistance, exigency or alleviation assistance could be added as a distinguishable class, given its lifting importance in recent old ages ( Mavrotas, 2002 ) . 2.2.4 Theories and theoretical accounts of foreign assistance in literature The double spread theoretical account A theoretical theoretical account of foreign assistance in literature is the double spread theoretical account. The Dual-gap theory emphasizes the function of imports and foreign exchange within the development procedure. The characteristic part of the dual-gap analysis is that though foreign exchange is the taking restraint, it points to the double function of foreign adoption in increasing non merely scarce domestic economy but besides foreign exchange. It is apparent that domestic proviso requires domestic economy ; and that foreign proviso of goods requires foreign exchange. There is ever a demand for a minimal sum of foreign exchange to prolong the growing procedure. The theoretical account takes both the traditional and modern position on foreign assistance- as a encouragement to domestic economy and, on the other manus, import of goods necessary for growing with the assistance of foreign aid. The dual-gap analysis besides presents a more relevant theory of trade for developing states which justifies protection and import permutation ( Ahmed, 2001 ) The foreign exchange spread The foreign exchange spread is defined as the shortage on the state s current history where the balance of payments exceeds the capital influxs. The foreign exchange spread is a concept really pertinent to developing states. They are normally characterized as being short of capital, since their economy and investing rates differ from developed states. With external assistance and other signifiers of pecuniary aid, developing and developing states can acquire initial capital required to ship on the tract to industrialisation. Once industrialisation is underway, the job of domestic salvaging resolutenesss bit by bit. The two spread theoretical account is based on the premise that for developing states to keep high growing and industrialisation, foreign currency is needed to import capital equipment, natural stuffs and intermediate goods. Thus foreign exchange spread can go a large development restraint. Hence, recipient states may necessitate foreign assistance in order to provide to their foreign exchange spread. 2.3 A reappraisal of the demand and supply side factors of foreign assistance 2.3.1. Demand side factors and the three spread theoretical account As opposed to macroeconomic growing theoretical accounts of full employment, the three-gap theoretical account unequivocally considers the interplay between capacity enlargement and capacity use . In add-on, less data demand of the theoretical account makes it well-suited to states such as China and Pakistan, where the coverage, coverage and handiness of clip series informations is really limited. Gap analysis assumes that the incremental capital-output ratio and other behavioural indexs are fixed in the medium-term and that there is restricted replacing and permutation between domestic and foreign resources. Harmonizing to the three-gap theoretical account, the enlargement and use of current productive capacity is constrained by non merely the domestic and foreign nest eggs, but besides by the impact of financial restrictions on authorities disbursement and hence on its public investing picks ( Zhang and Chen, 2006 ) . Motivations of Recipient Countries of Foreign Aid Many donees obtain assistance from some OECD helpers yearly. Recent research suggests that corrupt receiver authoritiess, particularly of the underdeveloped universe, have inducements to follow with donor aims in the public wellness sectors but they will make so in assistance sectors, in which conformity is less dearly-won. This scheme allows corrupt receivers to accomplish at least some developmental undertakings successfully, therefore warranting extra assistance influxs ( Dietrich, 2011 ) . Policies of receiver states sing foreign assistance Many developing states experience a phenomenal debt load in stead of the increasing inclination towards giving loan assistance as opposed to giving assistance as grants while binding assistance to the giver states exports. Given the equivocal effects of foreign aid and unequal power over the measure of assistance received, practicians and policy shapers in developing states make an attempt to seek utility footing for abroad capital, such as foreign private investing and direct and portfolio investing. Besides, the conditions imposed by assistance bureaus such as IMF and World Bank, may take to restrictions on policy liberty of the recipient state and go influential in ordering authoritiess of receiver states. Observed grounds recommends that assistance has non added intensely to the growing and economic development of beneficiary states and in many instances it has amplified inequalities among different groups ( Hang Le and Ataullah, 2011 ) . Many surveies even suggest that assistance has the possible to detain the timing of of import betterments and alterations by giving auxiliary capital to vested benefits which persuade governments of the recipient state to decline to accept accommodations ( Casella and Eichengreen, 1996 ) . 2.3.2. Supply side factors Determinants of giver s assistance allotment policies The mounting leaning toward giving assistance in the signifier of loans as opposed to giving assistance in grants and towards repairing assistance to the giver states exports is a manner of the giver to increase the debt load of the recipient state so that it becomes economically dependent on it for serving its debt ( Le and Ataullah, 2011 ) . Foreign Aid establishments, such as WB and IMF, have become even more dominant in utilizing the authoritiess of recipient state in their ain strategic involvements. Bermeo ( 2011 ) surveies data to look into the relationship between foreign assistance and the possibility of democratisation in assistance receivers. Harmonizing to him, the association of democratisation and foreign assistance lies on individualism of the assistance helper. In the period 1992 to 2007, assistance from democratic givers was found to be linked with an addition in the chance of a democratic passage. It suggested that self-governing and independent givers use limited assistance capital to back up democracy. However, within the same stage, foreign aid from autocratic authoritiess shows a negative relationship with democratisation. Authoritarian givers are dubious to encompass democracy indorsement in their intent to find the policy of assistance. China, for illustration, puts little conditionality on the assistance it extends and does non prioritise democratisation. Analyzing the web sites for the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development, the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development and The Saudi Fund for Development confirms that jobs of administration are non listed as large precedences for these givers. The Saudi Fund clearly puts its stance forward that loans it makes are without any judicial admissions and that it has direct trades with authorities sections of developing states in patronizing developments undertakings, supplying direct grounds that it does non follow new ways of directing assistance which many OECD givers comply with. It is possible that the difference seen in the contrast between democratic and autocratic assistance is in their association with regime alteration and is driven by the pick of receivers to a great extent. Balla and Reinhardt ( 2008 ) have another point of view. They find that givers have responded to equilibrate inducements to diminish recipient poorness and farther donor political and economic ends. Every bilateral giver conditions aid on struggle. The U.S. allocates immense sums of development assistance to states surrounding a struggle, in both pre- and post-Cold War times. However, commanding for development degrees and donor economic and political involvement, most givers cut down assistance to a receiver with an in-house or nearby intense struggle ( Balla and Reinhardt, 2008 ) . It is seen that most western givers give significant sums of foreign assistance to pervert states. While this might propose a policy failure to some, it may good be declarative of giver pattern that is frequently overlooked in literature: recipient authoritiess good behaviour in foreign assistance sectors, irrespective of their hapless national establishments, affairs for allotment. When measuring the high fiducial hazards associated with disbursement money on the universe s poorest and frequently most corrupt states, givers look for specific sector-related advancement ( Dietrich, 2011 ) . 2.3.3 Politicss and geopolitics of foreign assistance Geopoliticss and foreign policy Many democratic assistance givers province the publicity of democracy as a major end in their foreign policy. The United States Agency for International Development ( USAID ) puts frontward the position the position that their work gives support to evenhanded economic growing while widening U.S foreign policy motivations by assisting in prolonging growing, trade, agribusiness, democracy, human-centered aid, planetary wellness and struggle bar. The United Kingdom s Department for International Development ( DFID ) , nevertheless, gave form to a Governance and Transparency Fund which redresses issues which enable citizens of states to voices their positions and keep their authoritiess accountable to their actions ( Bermeo, 2011 ) . Geopoliticss and foreign assistance Tingley ( 2009 ) uses a time-series cross-sectional informations set to analyze the influence of alterations in political and financial variables. Harmonizing to him, as authoritiess become more and more conservative, their assistance attempt starts to fall. Domestic political variables emerge to act upon assistance attempt, nevertheless, merely for assistance to low income states and multilaterals as compared to help attempt to middle income states which remains unaffected. This emphasizes donor economic and international strategic involvements as grounds of giver assistance policy may be misjudged. His consequences besides suggest foundations of assistance volatility that might coerce recipient growing chances ( 2009 ) . Governance and its relation to foreign assistance Burnside and Dollar s ( 2000 ) survey introduces administration into the effectivity of assistance argument. They analyze the fact that assistance additions overall economic growing in the recipient state, provided it is used optimally with good administration patterns and financial and pecuniary policies. They shift their focal point from policies to establishments, happening empirical support and grounds for a multiplier consequence of good administration. The focal point of research assistance effectivity is the conditioning consequence of political establishments. Kosack ( 2003 ) besides looks into the conditioning consequence of democracy but adds the facet of human development to it excessively. He shows that more democratic authoritiess are more efficient at imparting assistance by bettering peoples lives, as calculated with the Human Development Index ( Dietrich, 2011 ) . Recent research suggests that corrupt receiver authoritiess, particularly of the underdeveloped universe, have inducements to follow with donor aims in the public wellness sectors but they will make so in assistance sectors, in which conformity is less dearly-won. This scheme allows corrupt receivers to accomplish at least some developmental undertakings successfully, therefore warranting extra assistance influxs ( Dietrich, 2011 ) . This implies immense loopholes in good administration by recipient states. There are illustrations that province otherwise. Good administration patterns can be found in corrupt receiver states excessively. Bangladesh, which ranks among the universe s most corrupt states by Transparency International ( 2006 ) , received US $ 833 million in foreign assistance in 2006, of which merely US $ 170 million was health-related assistance. Despite highly high corruptness degrees, the state has shown noteworthy success over the last twosome of old ages in bettering the status of basic wellness services. Donor representatives appreciate Bangladeshi coaction in turn toing indispensable demands of their citizens, peculiarly on kid wellness results. Whether a state is receptive to the giver s calls will hold an consequence on the nature and size of foreign assistance. Similarly, Mali, which is besides seen as a corrupt state late received a positive mentioning by an OECD wellness assistance appraisal ( 2009 ) , but accomplished really small in other sectors. Targeted and sustained immunisation, particular authorities plans to cut down pneumonia-related deceases, national consciousness runs on the intervention of diarrhoea, better sanitation, and better entree to safe H2O. For theories of assistance effectivity focused on the quality of administration, such narratives might look inconsistent. The high corruptness tonss should intend that Bangladesh s authorities would direct significant sums of public wellness assistance for private addition and less to go forth aside for development intents ( Dietrich, 2011 ) . There is turning understanding that assistance transparence and good administration must be improved to acquire better assistance effectivity. Aid transparence can be defined as complete handiness of assistance information in a systematic and timely mode, which would let community part and rank in authorities answerability ( Ghosh and Kharas, 2011 ) . Greater transparence helps donor states to measure their assistance plans more expeditiously. Some states, such as the US, provide assistance through multiple bureaus, frequently with overlapping duties. The consequence is a confusing reproduction of activities and diffuses answerability. Greater transparence is necessary for recipient state citizens to be able to keep their authorities accountable over disagreements in the figures for foreign assistance spent and received. For illustration, in Afghanistan, an functionary at the Ministry of Finance when interviewed by Oxfam America said that since 2001, the US had pledged $ 32 billion in assistance but less than 20 % ( $ 6 billion ) was recorded in the authorities databases. This means that Afghans have no manner of cognizing what happened to the other $ 26 billion that the US could hold spent in their state. 18 With greater transparence of how much assistance is coming into their state, citizens and authorities functionaries can hold a greater say in how best to utilize the financess ( Ghosh and Kharas, 2011 ) . 2.4 Foreign assistance influx, revenue enhancement reforms and revenue enhancement attempt 2.4.1 Aid effectivity on revenue enhancement attempt The relationship between assistance effectivity and revenue enhancement attempt can be highlighted utilizing the instance of Pakistan as a typical developing state. Pakistan was among the major assistance beneficiary states in the sixtiess, 70s, and 80s. Unfortunately, the benefits of such assistance could non make the society as a whole, particularly in countries of financial grosss. Foreign assistance failed to bring on the authorities to develop a sound instruction criterion for the state. Though Pakistan had a great inflow of assistance within this clip period, the registration rate in schools of children- and the overall illiteracy rate- continued to being at its former degree ( about 59-65 % ) . Other Asiatic states such as Malaysia and Sri Lanka which got merely a partial portion of assistance comparative to Pakistan in the seventiess were successful in bettering the literacy rates significantly. Other indexs, like employment and wellness, present the same word picture.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Blue Tongue Lizard Temperature Adaptations free essay sample

Ectotherms are â€Å"cold-blooded† animals such as reptiles, amphibians, insects, fish and worm. These animals rely on the outside environment for their body heat as they do not generate heat internally like a mammal or bird. Ectotherms have a variety of adaptations, many of them behavioural, to regulate their body temperature and keep it within the range in which they can be active; 10-30oC The Tiliqua or more commonly known as the blue-tongue lizard or just Blue tongue is the largest member of the skink family in Australia. There are six species of blue-tongued lizards or skinks in Australia. -Common or Eastern Blue-tongue Lizard (Tiliqua scincoides scincoides) -Northern Blue-tongued Skink (Tiliqua scincoides intermedia) -Western blue-tongued skink (Tiliqua occipitalis) -Central blue-tongued skink (Tiliqua multifasciata) -Blotched Blue-tongue (Tiliqua nigrolutea) -Shingleback (Tiliqua rugosa) -Pygmy Blue-tongue Skink (Tiliqua adelaidensis) Blue-tongue Lizards are found throughout most of Australia. Blue-tongues usually live in open country with lots of cover such as tall grasses, litter and low shrubs. We will write a custom essay sample on Blue Tongue Lizard Temperature Adaptations or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They shelter at night among these covers, in burrows and under large objects on the ground such as rocks and logs. There are three main temperature adaptations that a blue tongue lizard has to maintain its temperature. Blue tongues lie in a sunny spot with their body flattened and turned side-on to the side on a cool morning. This way it absorbs heat more quickly to get its body temperature high enough to become active and is only active when their body temperature is above 30oC and below 35oC. Secondly, as the day becomes hotter, the lizard will turn facing the sun to absorb less heat, and seek shade to avoid the potential of over-heating And lastly, during cold weather they mostly remain inactive, buried deep in their shelter sites. To avoid over heating they move into shades or burrows to cool down from the rising temperature. The temperature in their shelters is fairly constant, which enables the lizard to cool down.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Genealogical Historical Documents at Footnote

Genealogical Historical Documents at Footnote The Bottom Line Important historic documents from the U.S. National Archives are now making their way online due to an agreement with Digitized copies of documents such as Revolutionary War pension records and Civil War service records can be viewed and even annotated through what is possibly the best image viewer Ive seen on the Web. You can also create free personal story pages to track your research or share your documents and photos. Search results are also free, although youll have to subscribe to view, print and save most of the actual document images. In my opinion, is a bargain for the money. Pros One of the best image viewers Ive seen for accessing images onlineOffers access to millions of historic documents previously unavailable onlineThe ability to annotate and/or add comments to any individual document page7-day free trial available Cons Requires the lastest version of Flash. In some cases, the site wont even load without it.No soundex search. Some advanced search features are available, but not obvious.No FAQ or easy answers to support questions such as the Flash issue.Many document series are still in progress Description Over 5 million images of historical American documents and photos from the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.Records include: Revolutionary Civil War pension service records, state naturalization records and case files of the FBI.Annotate, comment, print and save digital document images.Story pages allow you to create a simple Web page with point and click editing.Upload and post your own historical documents for free.Under the nonexclusive agreement, Footnotes images will be available on the National Archives Web site after five years. Guide Review - allows you to search and view over 5 million digitized documents and photos from American history. Members can view, save and print the documents they find. A nifty feature allows you to highlight a name, place or date and add an annotation. Comments can also be added to post corrections or add additional information for anyone else who views the same image. The image viewer works as quickly and seamlessly as any Ive seen, and the jpeg images are of very high quality. Since many of the titles are in progress, I recommend that you use the Browse by Title feature to view the full description of the each document series, as it includes a nice completion status feature. Titles and documents are being added quickly and regularly, however. If you have a problem with the site loading slowly, be sure you have downloaded the latest version of Flash player for your browser. This usually fixes many such problems. Simple search is just that - simple. You enter search terms and then choose whether to search across all documents, or within a specific document set, such as PA Western Naturalizations. There is presently no soundex search, but you can narrow the search by document type, such as across all naturalization records, or within a particular title (first browse to the document subset you wish to search, and then enter your search terms). Advanced search hints can be accessed by clicking on the ? next to search. has the framework in place to be one of the most flexible and user-friendly sites on the Web for American genealogists. Once they add more records (and there are many in the works), upgrade the search feature, and do some tweaking, it has the potential to be a 5 star site. Despite being a newcomer to the world of digitized historic documents, Footnote has definitely risen the bar.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

ECE 410 Assessment Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

ECE 410 Assessment Assignment - Essay Example I then performed a series of assessments like asking him to state the first and last letters of his name. In the next test, I jumbled the letters of his name and asked him to arrange them in their correct order both in uppercase and in lower case. Paul completed the tasks successfully. I then wrote random names on a piece of paper and told him to read them out as I pointed at the names. He could not read the names but as soon as I pointed at his name, he read it. I then read the other names for him. He could recognize and pronounce the first and last letter of his name. In the last question of this assessment, I asked him to write some words of his choice. He managed to write only the three letter English words like cat, hat, boy and dog. He listed down the letters that begin with the same letter as his name. He named his family members but could not write down their names. I rated Paul’s ability as satisfactory. I did this assessment using a small storybook Harlem’s Little Blackbird by Watson (Watson, 2012). The book had alternating stories written in words and pictures explaining the story. The words in the print out had large fonts with well-written simple English. The word count on average basis was five. I asked Paul a multiple of questions about the book. I asked him what people do with books, he gave reading as the answer to the question. He knew that the book contained print and pictures. He knew that people should read a book from left to right. He had knowledge of the different punctuation marks used in the book. Paul could show me the front, cover and back of the book. Paul knew that once the first line was complete, we move to the next line and begin from left to right. He could tell the different punctuation marks present and could locate them. He, however, could not tell what the author of the book did. The assessment was excellent. I erected board with all the 26 alphabetical letters in front of him at a considerable distance. The letters

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Crisis Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Crisis Management - Essay Example Reputation has now become a ticket to success because it is what earns revenue. A good reputation is built when the company conducts itself in a way it is expected to. Reputation is build and maintained through communication (Coombs, 1995). The accounting theory creates assumptions, methodologies and frameworks that businesses should use when applying the financial principles (Benoit, 2000). This aids in providing information that is objective, reliable, timely, clear, consistent and comparable. It is necessary to provide this information so that the stake holders, namely trade creditors, financial creditors, employees, shareholders, trade unions, the present and the current investors, can make decisions based on that information. The information released is not only used for outsiders, but it may also be used internally in order to correct the things and decisions that are wrong. In this sense, this accounting theory informs the discussion of this paper by emphasising on the importa nce of information and communication in decision making. A crisis is that unfortunate situation that has created a threat to an organisation and its clients, and the organisations' management has to respond to the ongoing threat (Hooghiemstra, 2000). Action has to be taken otherwise the problem was not a threat to be categorised as a crisis. The structural functional systems theory provides some insight into crisis management. It emphasises information flow in an organisation through patterns called networks. It implies that companies with rich communication channels that are clear are able to handle crises better than those who do not. The diffusion innovation theory informs the theoretical framework of this study by providing and describing that innovation is disseminated and communicated only through certain channels over a period of time making consistency of essence (Benoit, 1995). The Case Context This study will examine a case where there was a crisis and how well, or otherwi se, was it handled. The case chosen is that of Toyota crisis of 2010 involving faulty accelerators and braking systems. On 29th August 2009, a police patrol officer Mark Saylor was cruising down the highway at well over 100 kph when he realised that the breaks were not working and that the accelerator was stuck in. It finally ended up crashing on another car killing four people. This was the onset of this crisis as several other accidents followed in that month up to the end of the year before the Toyota Company decided to recall all the Toyota models that had been affected by that defect (McDonald, 2010). Data It is only after a hyped media reporting that Toyota came out publicly to admit that there was a problem. This was in January 2010, and 34 drivers had already lost their lives. It was clear that Toyota was in a crisis, and it owed it to its customers and the society at large to take action. It therefore, took the high road action of recalling more than 16 million vehicles wor ldwide with 10 million of those being in the US (Bensinger, 2010). At this time, the crisis was already at an advanced stage but Toyota being a market leader in Automobile manufacturers had its image, identity and reputation at stake. The only available measure was to hold a press release in which they were to admit that there were vehicles that were manufactured at a certain period of time and had unintended accelerators and faulty breaking system (McDonald, 2010). On February 1 2010, Jim Lentz, Toyota’s CEO in America held a press release meeting on behalf of Toyota’

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Nike Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Nike - Essay Example The question whether Nike should have continued supporting Armstrong after the doping scandal is simple – no. Companies support sports personalities not only because of their achievements, but also because of what they stand for and symbolize – strong spirit, unbreakable will, lots of sacrifices and long hours of training for which they haven’t been paid for. The moment you stop being a symbol of good will and values, you stop being valued yourself. Armstrong deceived his fans, sponsors and everyone that supported him. So in my opinion it is understandable that if you are caught misrepresenting the very core morals and principles you were supposed to guard, you will stop representing the company that stood behind you. Corporations are not only guided by their profits and annual returns – but they also have public responsibilities. Companies want to make money contracting famous faces to represent their brand. But world recognized businesses also give back to communities and social projects. Hence they can’t allow themselves to lose face before their stakeholders and undermine a brand that existed long before Armstrong and will continue to be on the market long after he is

Friday, November 15, 2019

The features of the United States Dollar

The features of the United States Dollar The symbol $, usually written before the numerical amount, is used for the U.S. dollar (as well as for many other currencies). The signs ultimate origins are not certain, though it is possible that it comes from the Pillars of Hercules which flank the Spanish Coat of arms on the Spanish dollars that were minted in the New World mints in Mexico City, Potosà ­, Bolivia, and in Lima, Peru. These Pillars of Hercules on the silver Spanish dollar coins take the form of two vertical bars and a swinging cloth band in the shape of an S. An equally accepted, and better documented, explanation is that this symbol for peso was the result of a late eighteenth-century evolution of the scribal abbreviation ps. The p and the s eventually came to be written over each other giving rise to $. A fictional possibility suggested is that the dollar sign is the capital letters U and S typed one on top of the other. This theory, popularized by novelist Ayn Rand in Atlas Shrugged [23], does not consider the fact that the symbol was already in use before the formation of the United States. United States one-dollar bill ($1) Diagram shoes the obverse of the $1 bill The United States one-dollar bill ($1) is the most common denomination of US currency. The first president, George Washington, painted by Gilbert Stuart, is currently featured on the obverse, while the Great Seal of the United States is featured on the reverse. The one-dollar bill has the second oldest design of all U.S. currency currently being produced, after the two-dollar bill. The obverse seen today debuted in 1963 when the $1 bill first became a Federal Reserve Note. The inclusion of In God We Trust on all currency was required by law in 1955. The national motto first appeared on paper money in 1957.An individual dollar bill is also less formally known as a one, a single or a bone. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $1 bill in circulation is 21 months before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 45% of all U.S. currency produced today is one-dollar bills. All $1 bills produced today are Federal Reserve Notes. One-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in blue straps. Diagram shows reverse of the $1 bill Obverse of current $1 bill Detail of the Treasury Seal as it appears on a $1 bill The portrait of George Washington is displayed in the center of the obverse of the one-dollar bill, as it has been since the 1869 design. The oval containing George Washington is propped up by bunches of Bay Laurel leaves. To the left of George Washington is the Federal Reserve District Seal. The name of the Federal Reserve Bank that issued the note encircles a capital letter, (A-L), identifying it among the twelve Federal Reserve Banks. The sequential number of the bank, (1: A, 2: B, etc.), is also displayed in the four corners of the open space on the bill. Until the redesign of the higher denominations of currency beginning in 1996, this seal was found on all denominations of Federal Reserve Notes. Since then it is only present on the $1 and $2 notes, with the higher denominations only displaying a universal Federal Reserve System seal, and the bank letter and number beneath the serial number. To the right of George Washington is the Treasury Department seal. The balancing scales represent justice. The chevron with thirteen stars represents the original thirteen colonies. The key below the chevron represents authority and trust; 1789 is the year that the Department of the Treasury was established. Below the FRD seal (to the left of George Washington) is the signature of the Treasurer of the U.S., which occasionally varies, and below the USDT Seal (right side) is the Secretary of the Treasurys signature. To the left of the Secretarys signature is the series date. A new series date will result from a change in the Secretary of the Treasury, the Treasurer of the United States, and/or a change to the notes appearance such as a new currency design. On the edges are olive branches entwined around the 1s. Reverse of current $1 bill President Franklin Roosevelts conditional approval of the one-dollar bills design in 1935, requiring that the appearance of the sides of the Great Seal be reversed, and together, captioned. The reverse of the one-dollar bill has an ornate design which incorporates both sides of the Great Seal of the United States to the left and right of the word ONE. This word appears prominently in the white space at the center of the bill in a capitalized, shadowed, and seriffed typeface. A smaller image of the word ONE is superimposed over the numeral 1 in each of the four corners of the bill. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA spans the top of the bill, ONE DOLLAR is emblazoned along the bottom, and above the central ONE are the words IN GOD WE TRUST, which became the official motto of the United States in 1956. Below the reverse of the Great Seal on the left side of the bill are the words THE GREAT SEAL, and below the obverse on the right side are the words OF THE UNITED STATES. Both reverse and obverse of the Great Seal contain symbols of historical, political, religious, and numerological significance. The Great Seal, originally designed in 1782 and added to the dollar bills design in 1935, is surrounded by an elaborate floral design. The renderings used were the typical official government versions used since the 1880s. The reverse of the seal on the left features a barren landscape dominated by an unfinished pyramid of 13 steps, topped by the Eye of Providence within a triangle. At the base of the pyramid are engraved the Roman numerals MDCCLXXVI (1776), the date of American independence from Britain. At the top of the seal stands a Latin phrase, ANNUIT COEPTIS, meaning He (God) favors our undertaking. At the bottom of the seal is a semicircular banner proclaiming NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM meaning New Order of the Ages, which is a reference to the new American era. To the left of this seal, a string of 13 pearls extends toward the edge of the bill. The obverse of the seal on the right features a bald eagle, the national bird and symbol of the United States. Above the eagle is a radiant cluster of 13 stars arranged in a six-pointed star. The eagles breast is covered by a heraldic shield with 13 stripes that resemble those on the American flag. As on the first US flag, the stars and stripes stand for the 13 original states of the union. The eagle holds a ribbon in its beak reading E PLURIBUS UNUM, a Latin phrase meaning Out of many [states], one [nation], a de facto motto of the United States (and the only one until 1956). In its left talons the eagle holds 13 arrows, and in its right talons it holds an olive branch with 13 leaves and 13 olives, representing, respectively, the powers of war and peace. To the right of this seal, a string of 13 pearls extends toward the edge of the bill. Conspiracy The symbology of the Great Seal of the United States, and its subsequent use on the dollar bill (especially the pyramid and the Eye of Providence above the pyramid) are popular topics among conspiracy theorists. Conspiracy theorists are of the opinion that much of the symbolism involves occultism. For example, because the Eye of Providence above the unfinished pyramid is similar to the ancient Egyptian Eye of Horus, a charm, relating to the Pagan/Egyptian sky-god Horus which symbolized that worshipers will be protected and given royal powers from Pagan deities. In fact, Eye of Providence was a common Christian emblem symbolizing the Trinity throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Conspiracy theorists also note that the unfinished pyramid has thirteen steps (or that some other element of the Seal numbers thirteen), and are of the opinion that the number 13 has conspiratorial significance. The explanation for the repetition of the number thirteen is that this number represents the original thirteen colonies which became the first thirteen states. United States two-dollar bill ($2) The United States two-dollar bill ($2) is a current denomination of U.S. currency. Former U.S. President Thomas Jefferson is featured on the obverse of the note. The reverse features an engraved modified reproduction of the painting The Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull. The bill was discontinued in 1966, but was reintroduced 10 years later as part of the United States Bicentennial celebrations. Today, however, it is rarely seen in circulation and actual use. Production of the note is the lowest of U.S. paper money: less than 1% of all notes currently produced are $2 bills. This comparative scarcity in circulation, coupled with a lack of public awareness that the bill is still in circulation, has also inspired urban legends and, on a few occasions, created problems for people trying to use the bill to make purchases. Throughout the $2 bills pre-1928 life as a large-sized note, it was issued as a United States Note, National Bank Note, Silver Certificate, and Treasury or HYPERLINK Note. When U.S. currency was changed to its current size, the $2 bill was issued only as a United States Note. After United States Notes were discontinued, the $2 bill later began to be issued as a Federal Reserve Note. United States five-dollar bill ($5) The United States five-dollar bill ($5) is a denomination of United States currency. The $5 bill currently features U.S. President Abraham Lincolns portrait on the front and the Lincoln Memorial on the back. All $5 bills issued today are Federal Reserve Notes. Five dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in red straps. The $5 bill is sometimes nicknamed a fin. The term has German/Yiddish roots and is remotely related to the English five, but it is far less common today than it was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $5 bill in circulation is 16 months before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 9 percent of all paper currency produced by the U.S. Treasurys Bureau of Engraving and Printing today are $5 bills. United States ten-dollar bill ($10) The United States ten-dollar bill ($10) is a denomination of United States currency. The first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, is currently featured on the obverse of the bill, while the U.S. Treasury is featured on the reverse. (Hamilton is one of two non-presidents featured on currently issued U.S. bills. The other is Benjamin Franklin, on the $100 HYPERLINK In addition to this, Hamilton is the only person featured on U.S. currency who was not born in the continental United States, as he was from the West Indies.) All $10 bills issued today are Federal Reserve Notes. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $10 bill in circulation is 18 months before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 11% of all newly printed US banknotes are $10 bills. Ten dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in yellow straps. The source of the face on the $10 bill is John Trumbulls 1805 portrait of Hamilton that belongs to the portrait collection of New York City Hall. The $10 bill is the only U.S. paper currency in circulation in which the portrait faces to the left (the $100,000 bill features a portrait of Woodrow Wilson facing to the left, but was used only for intra-government transactions). United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) The United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of United States currency. U.S. President Andrew Jackson is currently featured on the front side of the bill, which is why the twenty-dollar bill is often called a Jackson, while the White House is featured on the reverse side. The twenty-dollar bill in the past was referred to as a double-sawbuck because it is twice the value of a ten-dollar bill, which was nicknamed a sawbuck due to the resemblance the Roman numeral for ten (X) bears to the legs of a sawbuck, although this usage had largely fallen out of favor by the 1980s.[1] The twenty dollar gold coin was known as a double eagle. Rather than a nickname, this nomenclature was specified by an act of Congress. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average circulation life of a $20 bill is 25 months (2 years) before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 22% of all notes printed today are $20 bills. Twenty-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in violet straps. United States fifty-dollar bill ($50) The United States fifty-dollar bill ($50) is a denomination of United States currency. Ulysses S. Grant is currently featured on the obverse, while the U.S. Capitol is featured on the reverse. All $50 bills issued today are Federal Reserve Notes. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $50 bill in circulation is 55 months before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 5% of all notes printed today are $50 bills. They are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in brown straps. A fifty dollar bill is sometimes called a Grant based on the use of Ulysses S. Grants portrait on the bill. Andrew Jacksons actions toward the Native Americans as a general, as well as during his Presidency, have led some historians to question the suitability of Jacksons depiction on the twenty-dollar bill. Howard Zinn, for instance, identifies Jackson as a leading exterminator of Indians, and notes how the public commemoration of Jackson obscures this part of American history. Those opposed to Central Banking point out the irony of Andrew Jackson on a Federal Reserve Note. Jackson spent much of his Presidency fighting against the Bank of the United States, which was at that time the government sanctioned Federal Bank. An email emerged after the events of 9/11 which alleged that folding the twenty-dollar bill a certain way produced images appearing to be 9/11 related (specifically the World Trade Center and the Pentagon burning).[9] United States one hundred-dollar bill ($100) The United States one hundred-dollar bill ($100) is a denomination of United States currency. The redesigned $100 bill was unveiled on April 21, 2010, and the Federal Reserve Board will begin issuing the new bill on February 10, 2011. U.S. statesman, inventor, and diplomat Benjamin Franklin is currently featured on the obverse of the bill. On the reverse of the banknote is an image of Independence Hall. The time on the clock according to the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, shows approximately 4:10. The numeral four on the clock face is incorrectly written as IV whereas the real Independence Hall clock face has IIII. (See Roman numerals in clocks.) The bill is one of two current notes that do not feature a President of the United States; the other is the United States ten-dollar bill, featuring Alexander Hamilton. It is the largest denomination that has been in circulation since July 14, 1969, when the higher denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000 and $100,000 were retired. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $100 bill in circulation is 60 months (5 years) before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 7% of all notes produced today are $100 bills. The bills are also commonly referred to as Benjamins in reference to the use of Benjamin Franklins portrait on the denomination. They are also often referred to as C-Notes based on the Roman numeral C which means 100.One hundred-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in mustard-colored straps ($10,000).The Series 2009 $100 bill redesign was unveiled on April 21, 2010 and will be issued to the public on February 10, 2011. Federal Reserve Note A Federal Reserve Note is a type of banknote. Federal Reserve Notes are printed by the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing on paper made by Crane HYPERLINK Co. of Dalton, Massachusetts. They are the only type of U.S. banknote that is still produced today and they should not be confused with Federal Reserve Bank Notes. Federal Reserve Notes are authorized by Section 411 of Title 12 of the United States Code. They are issued to the Federal Reserve Banks at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The notes are then issued into circulation by the Federal Reserve Banks. When the notes are issued into circulation they become liabilities of the Federal Reserve Banks and obligations of the United States. Federal Reserve Notes are fiat currency, with the words this note is legal tender for all debts, public and private printed on each note. (See generally 31 U.S.C.  Ã‚  5103.) They have replaced United States Notes, which were once issued by the Treasury Department. Various Federal Reserve Notes, c.1995. Only the designs of the $1 and $2 (not pictured) are still in print. The New $100 Bill The redesigned $100 bill was unveiled on April 21, 2010, and the Federal Reserve Board will begin issuing the new note on February 10, 2011. The redesigned $100 note incorporates a number of security features, including two new advanced features, the 3-D Security Ribbon and the Bell in the Inkwell. It offers a simple and subtle way to verify that a new $100 note is real. These security features were developed to make it easier to authenticate the note and more difficult for counterfeiters to replicate. There are several new security features as stated below: 3-D Security Ribbon: Look for a blue ribbon on the front of the note. Tilt the note back and forth while focusing on the blue ribbon. You will see the bells change to 100s as they move. When you tilt the note back and forth, the bells and 100s move side to side. If you tilt it side to side, they move up and down. The ribbon is woven into the paper, not printed on it. Bell in the Inkwell: Look for an image of a color-shifting bell, inside a copper-colored inkwell, on the front of the new $100 note. Tilt it to see the bell change from copper to green, an effect which makes the bell seems to appear and disappear within the inkwell. Additional Design and Security Features: Three highly effective security features from the older design have been retained and updated in the new $100 note. Several additional features have been added to protect the integrity of the new $100 note. Portrait Watermark: Hold the note to light and look for a faint image of Benjamin Franklin in the blank space to the right of the portrait. Security Thread: Hold the note to light to see an embedded thread running vertically to the left of the portrait. The thread is imprinted with the letters USA and the numeral 100 in an alternating pattern and is visible from both sides of the note. The thread glows pink when illuminated by ultraviolet light. Color-Shifting 100: Tilt the note to see the numeral 100 in the lower right corner of the front of the note shift from copper to green. Raised Printing: Move your finger up and down Benjamin Franklins shoulder on the left side of the note. It should feel rough to the touch, a result of the enhanced intaglio printing process used to create the image. Traditional raised printing can be felt throughout the $100 note, and gives genuine U.S. currency its distinctive texture. Gold 100: Look for a large gold numeral 100 on the back of the note. It helps those with visual impairments distinguish the denomination. Micro printing: Look carefully to see the small printed words which appear on Benjamin Franklins jacket collar, around the blank space containing the portrait watermark, along the golden quill, and in the note borders. FW Indicator: The redesigned $100 notes printed in Fort Worth, Texas, will have a small FW in the top left corner on the front of the note to the right of the numeral 100. If a note does not have an FW indicator, it was printed in Washington, D.C. Federal Reserve Indicator: A universal seal to the left of the portrait represents the entire Federal Reserve System. A letter and number beneath the left serial number identifies the issuing Federal Reserve Bank. There are 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks and 24 branches located in major cities throughout the United States. Serial Numbers: The unique combination of eleven numbers and letters appears twice on the front of the bill. Because they are unique identifiers, serial numbers help law enforcement identify counterfeit notes, and they also help the Bureau of Engraving and Printing track quality standards for the notes they produce. Large Denominations of United States Currency Today, the base currency of the United States is the U.S. dollar, and is printed on bills in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. At one time, however, it also included five larger denominations. High-denomination currency was prevalent from the very beginning of U.S. Government issue (1861). $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000 interest bearing notes were issued in 1861, and $5,000 and $10,000 United States Notes were released in 1878 There are many different designs and types of high-denomination notes. The high-denomination bills were issued in a small size in 1929, along with the $1 through $100 denominations. The designs were as follows, along with their 1929 equivalents in current purchasing power (except for the $100,000 bill, which uses the 1934 equivalent): $1,000: Grover Cleveland, equal to $12,700 in 2010 dollars $5,000: James Madison, equal to $63,500 in 2010 dollars $10,000: Salmon P. Chase, equal to $127,000 in 2010 dollars The reverse designs abstract scrollwork with ornate denomination identifiers. All were printed in green, except for the $100,000. The $100,000 is an odd bill, in that it was not generally issued, and printed only as a gold certificate of Series of 1934. These gold certificates (of denominations $100, $1,000, $10,000, and $100,000) were issued after the gold standard was repealed and gold was compulsorily purchased by presidential order of Franklin Roosevelt on March 9, 1933 (see United States Executive Order 6102), and thus were used only for intra-government transactions. They are printed in orange on the reverse. This series was discontinued in 1940. The other bills are printed in black and green as shown by the $10,000 example (pictured at right). Although they are still technically legal tender in the United States, high-denomination bills were last printed in 1945 and officially discontinued on July 14, 1969, by the Federal Reserve System.[1] The $5,000 and $10,000 effectively d isappeared well before then: there are only about two hundred $5,000 bills, and three hundred $10,000 bills known, of all series since 1861. Of the $10,000 bills, 100 were preserved for many years by Benny Binion, the owner of BinionHYPERLINK Horseshoe casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, where they were displayed encased in acrylic. The display has since been dismantled and the bills were sold to private collectors. The Federal Reserve began taking high-denomination bills out of circulation in 1969. As of May 30, 2009, there were only 336 of the $10,000 bills in circulation; 342 remaining $5,000 bills; and 165,372 $1,000 bills still being used.[2] Due to their rarity, collectors will pay considerably more than the face value of the bills to acquire them. For the most part, these bills were used by banks and the Federal Government for large financial transactions. This was especially true for gold certificates from 1865 to 1934. However, the introduction of the electronic money system has made large-scale cash transactions obsolete; when combined with concerns about counterfeiting and the use of cash in unlawful activities such as the illegal drug trade, it is unlikely that the U.S. government will re-issue large denomination currency in the near future. According to the US Department of Treasury website, The present denominations of our currency in production are $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. Neither the Department of the Treasury nor the Federal Reserve System has any plans to change the denominations in use today.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Indian Mathematics :: India Math Education

Introduction: Indian, in particular, Hindu, mathematics has not been given the credit or recognition that it deserves. Many of the foundational concepts used in all mathematics were first discovered by the Hindu Indians. This paper will discuss many of these concepts and how they were used in the fifth through the eighth centuries. Apart from direct testimony on the point, the literature of the Hindus furnishes unmistakable evidence to prove that the ancient Hindus possessed astonishing power of memory and concentration of thought. The science of mathematics, the most abstract of all sciences, must have an irresistible fascination for the minds of the Hindus. Mathematics is the science to which Indians have contributed the most. Our decimal system, place notation, numbers one through nine, and the ubiquitous 0, are all major Indian contributions to world science. Without them, our modern world of computer sciences, satellites, microchips, and artificial intelligence would all have been impossible. The majority of my writing will focus on a specific area of math called the shulba sutras, which consists of the majority of the discoveries made in geometry. This geometry fascinates me because of their purpose and meaning that is connected with everything they do. Math although seemingly very concrete, right and wrong, can be explained in a spiritual sense as well. The meanings behind all the numerical calculations are the actual significant part according the Vedic literature. The Sulba Sutras The Sulba Sutras, is an important part of the Vedic literature, which consists of a detailed analysis explaining the importance and interrelation between various branches of Vedic texts. Mr. Maharihsi Mahesh Yogi, has completely restored the thousands of years-old scattered Vedic Literature for the total significance of its theory and practice, and has organized it in the form of a complete science of consciousness. The Vedic literature is compiled into forty parts, including the four Vedas plus six sections each with six parts. The four Vedas, the Brahamanas, the Vendangas, the Upa-Vedas, and the Pratishakhya each "express a specific quality of consciousness,"(1) which means that we need to look beyond the surface to find the deeper meanings. There are four main Sulba Sutras, the Baudhayana, the Apastamba, the Manava, and the Katyayna. One of the meanings of the Vedic Sulba Sutras is "string, cord or rope,"(1) which shows that the earliest geometrical and mathematical investigations among the Indians rose from the requirements of their religious rituals. "This could be a reference to the fact that measurements for the geometrical constructions are performed by drawing arcs with different radii and centers using a cord or sulba".

Sunday, November 10, 2019

India of My Dreams

Essay 4 You Get All type of Essays for you. School or college no problem all types of essays are available here. * Home * Main Site * Categories * About us The India of My Dreams School Essay, The India of My Dreams Key Words and Phrases: – past, great, today, evils, free, food, clothes, houses, education, jobs. – rich and strong, suffering from, India of my dreams, clean and healthy, free and happy, peaceful and united, to flow with milk and honey. India was very great in the past. She was rich and strong. She has given to the world great saints, scholars, thinkers, artists and soldiers. Today her people are suffering from many evils. Among these evils are poverty, ignorance, disease, bribery, corruption, indiscipline and disunity. The India of my dreams will be free from these evils. Her people will have good food to eat. They will have fine clothes to wear. They will have nice houses to live in. They will have proper education. They will be clean and healthy. They will be free and happy. There will be jobs for all. There will be no strikes and ‘morchas’. The people will be peaceful and united. India will flow with milk and honey. all of us want India to become a respectable super power in the world. India ha a rich past. it was because of its riches, that it was invaded innumerable times and its wealth was plundered. The British rulers exploited the country. At the time of independence, the country was in turmoil, its economy had been shuttered and there was unrest all around. In sixty years since independence, the country has made tremendous progress. However, it is still for behind the developed counties of the world. India of my dreams is a peaceful, progressive, literate country free from the pangs of poverty, where every citizen feels safe and secure, where health facilities are provided top all and where the women of the country are treated with utmost dignity and respect. India, is proud of its rich past. It was because of tis riches that it was invaded innumerable times and that its wealth was plundered. The Britishers ruled India for almost two centuries and exploited the country economically. At the time of independence (August 15, 1947) the economy of the country was shattered and there was social unrest all round. However it was time for India to write its own history. A lot of progress has been made on various fronts. There have been short comings in our planning as well as its implementation. However when we notice other counties, who also achieved independence around the same time, we feel we are much better placed. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. It provides employment to over 60 percent of the country's work force and it accounts for over quarter of India's gross domestic product. It also contributes substantially to export trade. However except for some pockets of development, agriculture scene in rest of the country is dismal. The farming community is generally under debt. A large number of farmers in recent years have committed suicide because of mounting economic difficulties. Industrial development plays a significant role in the growth process of the under developed counties. It helps in raising income levels and in absorbing rural surplus labour. It is believed that prior to 19th century India was a great manufacturing country. However at the time of independence the industry was in bad shape. Industrial development stared with the second five year plan. It has passed thought different phases. Many bottlenecks and red tapism came in the way of rapid development of industry. Some of the areas of concern have been addressed in the post liberation ear. The new industrial policy of July 1991 is market is needed for the growth of industry. India maintained a favorable policy towards foreign direct investment till 1967. Some preconditions and regulations were imposed from 1968 onwards. Realizing that these conditions were hampering India's industrial progress, the relaxations were made. With the economic liberalization from July 1991 onwards foreign direct investment has been encouraged and it has been allowed in many sectors. India has made its mark in ‘Service Sector'. It has emerged as an important Business Process Outsourcing (BPOs and Call centers) destinations. India fortunately has a large number of well qualified English speaking population, which is needed in this kind of enterprise. India's population as per 1951 census was 36 crore. In 50 year i. e. as per 2001 census the country's population on March 31, 2001 rose to 102. 7 crores. Such rapid growth of population places a huge burden on our limited resources and limited land area. India's literacy rare as per 1951 census was less than 20 percent. In over fifty seven years it has increased to about 65 percent, which clearly indicates that even today about 35 percent of the population over 350 million people in our country are still illiterate. It is truly a sad reflection of the sate of literacy in our country. India has made rapid strides in many spheres. the economic condition of the people is better today than it was at the time of independence. We have made tremendous progress in science and technology. Our infrastructure is far better. A large number of universities, colleges and schools have been set up. Industrialization has taken place. Better health care is now available especially in urban areas. Average life span has increased. Infant mortality rate has come down. Better employment opportunities are available to the youth of the country. Means of transpiration and communication have undergone a sea change. Print and Electronic media has played a key role in creating awareness and bringing people closer. Improvement is noticeable even in provision of sports facilities. India is the third English book producing country after USA and UK. Indo-English literature is now well-developed and internationally recognized. It is able to capture many international awards like Booker price. Pulizter prize etc. Arundhati Roy, Jhumpa Lahiri, Anita Desai, Arvind Adiga etc. are some of the important names in this field. Despite all this progress which is commendable, a lot needs to be done to improve the living conditions of agricultural and industrial labor and the people working in unorganized sectors. Steps should be taken to stop crime and violence. The misguided youth of some troubled states needs to brought in the main stream. Communalism, regionalism and fundamentalism need to be curbed with a strong hand. Condition of women folk needs drastic improvement. Women empowerment is the demand of a civilized society. Equal opportunities need to be given to the girl child for education and career development. Illiteracy and poverty need to be rooted out. Self-sufficiency ought to be achieved in all spheres. Dependence on other counties should be a thing of the past. India of my drams is a country where nobody is illiterate and nobody sleeps hungry, where there is no distinction on the basis of genre, religion or caste, where justice to a common man is neither denied or deleted, where orruption in public life does not exist, where criminals can not occupy and ministerial berths nor enter legislative assemblies, where merit counts in every sphere of life, where jobs cannot be purchased, where rapists have to spend the rest of their lives behind the bars, where the intellectuals like Amartya Sen and Har Govind Khurana do not have to leave the country's shore for higher research and recognition w here the Shabad Kirtan from Gurudwaras, and Azan from Mosques, the Bhajans from Temples and chiming of the bells from churches merge and mingle and produce a harmonious, melodious, spiritual tune, loved by on MY INDIA MY DREAM ? JANA GANA MANA ADHI NAYAKA JAYAHE BHARATHA BHAGYA VIDHATHA? Yes, India? s pride never ends. It s a holy peninsular land. The great Himalayas act as strong barrier of the country. Thus India is a prestigious country. As a citizen of this beloved land I feel proud to dream about my country. I? m looking forward for a comfortable and settled life of Indians within a few years. ?JAHAN DAL DAL PAR SONE KI CHIDIYA KARTI HAIN BASERA, OH BHARAT DESH HAIN MERA? -Rajinder Krishna. Yes, that is the India of my dreams and I wish to translate these dreams into reality. What is required is our strife and struggle to annihilate the evils prevailing in our society in order to reach our goal. These evils have been inherited by a few of our own people from the British much before they left India for good, enough to award miseries, pain and insults to the masses, who continue to suffer for centuries. This is the land where ? ahimsa? was born. Even though India is a very great country with very old culture and tradition, she had not been playing a very important role in the world as she could never become independent in the real sense. But now the entire perfectionism of India has recognized. I would, therefore, like to see, in the first place, that each and every citizen, in my India, should possess a national character, which is absolutely essential to keep the banner of the country up. An erudite person should have respect for both literate and illiterate alike and the ? haves? really help the ? have-nots?. Next, India should be a place where the virulent notion of division, fragmentation or destruction through regional-national conflicts is considered an opprobrium of high degree ;the atmosphere paradisiacal with all its wonders up-to-date and the survival of its denizens , irrespective of all discriminations, absolutely necessary. Where the boundary of different states gradually ceases to exist or become truly artificial, making the national boundary healthier and stronger. Where creation of ? Gulistans? is substituted for ? Khalistans?. Today? s political ethos exhibits a very unhealthy trend. Wrong people with wrong motives are entering politics. I would like to see an India where politicians cannot inflame the spark of communal violence and riots or bamboozle voters with their duplex speeches. Every religion has impregnated its ambition with a particular shape and a specified bliss. Every religion teaches people how to love one another; we have used it to hate one another! In my India, I wouldn? t wish to see that one butchers neighbors in the name of religion and demolishes their religious places of worship. It would be a place where mere recitation of holy scripts and consecrated laws during worship would never reflect one? godliness, unless put into practice. Terrorism and militancy are raising their ugly head more than ever before. Harijans, the lowest and the most oppressed caste in India, have been successful in launching a nation- wide movement. I would love to see the people of my country free from all types of grievances, oppressions and demands. No one would ha ve to hang his head in shame. There would not be a single Indian who would not be proud of his country. While the India of my dreams would maintain amicable relations with neighboring countries, her foreign policy would be the best in the world. Even after 45 years of independence, she is still plagued by poverty, unemployment and foreign exchange trade deficit. I would, therefore, like to see India as a place where inflation and demonetization do not kill the consumers? ability to purchase. Where jobs are not deprived to even the poorest of the poor and everybody is satisfied. A healthy economy is the life-blood of a country. We would serve as a model of just such a vibrant economy- nurtured by an imaginative , innovative, liberal trade policy. The largest single source of foreign exchange for our country is tourism. I would wish this trend to continue. I would wish, in some years, India would be having the most creative entrepreneurs, the most dynamic business leaders and the sharpest financial brains. Nature has been kind to India by endowing her with the gift of abundant natural resources. Thus, in my India, there would be optimum exploitation of her resources. The machine- made articles of the world would be unable to compete with the handicrafts of our India of my dreams. Exports would be at their zenith; imports at their nadir. The quality of life cannot improve in India as long as the population keeps on ncreasing at the present alarming rate. Therefore, in my dream about India, people would be much rational and they would themselves, open-heartedly, check the population growth simply by having a child or two. Everywhere, everything would be in plenty for all. As on date, India? s is the fourth largest army, the fifth largest air force and the seventh largest navy in the world. A Pentagon report says that India is now the largest power in South Asia. I would wish to see her being ranked first in the world in all these categories and also regarded as the ? Mecca of scientific inventions and discoveries?. Also, I fantasy India as a place where cultures and civilizations are at their peak. Where child labor is unheard of and children not intentionally crippled and made to beg for personal gains of others. Where leprosy patients are not required to ask passers-by for help but provided with everything by the Government. Where men think it a sin to ask for dowry and women are treated at par with them and not harassed or burnt by in-laws. Where colleges and universities are not turned into political dense. Where the people think it ? better to spin with Penelope than dance with Helen?. Where her men and women are so perfect in all respects that they are imitated proudly by their counterparts in the rest of the world. May my India look like a fairyland to the children so that they are and all. A classes and casteless India, a country which all Indians can be truly proud of. > happy and able to weave the fabric of perfect loveliness and pulchritude. Progress is a purposive change. It can be either scientific or moral. India had tremendous progress since independence. But there are some more stages which India must cross to achieve complete progress. I wish my dreams of those progress would change India? s fate. ?HUM HONGE KAMYAB EK DIN? — Keeping this motto in mind, let us, therefore, cry to eradicate all the evils of our society and acquire the requisite culture, discipline, attitude and habit of tolerance, goodwill and mutual respect, so that everyone of us one day, will have so clean a heart and so pure a mind that he will have a glimpse of a novel dawn, and the first of the sun, that day, will be truly golden, enough to fulfill my dreams I LOVE MY INDIA use this poem -Where The Mind is Without Fear Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free; Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow? domestic walls; Where words come out from the depth of truth; Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit; Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action– Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake. — Rabindranath Tagorerays Economic inequalities or poverty that is the root cause of several social tensions and breakdown of law and order is a thing of the past with no one being forced to suffer the pangs of hunger; every citizen is a literate adopting the norms of a small family as a way of life and contributing to the zero-growth of population; all the people lead a healthy life with epidemics being confined to the pages of history and diseases resulting from under nutrition driven out of the country; food production is enough to take care of the needs of the country’s population and is exported to other countries where food production is not adequate to feed the people; the rural areas compete with urban areas in development and reduce the migration of rural poor from the villages to the cities; there is no shortage of electricity and other energy sources to keep the wheels of progress and development going; all the people have their own homes and do not feel insecure in rented houses; child labo ur is eliminated with all the children attending schools and enjoying the joy of childhood; the workers are not exploited by unscrupulous managements and are paid fair wages; legal cases are disposed off quickly and justice is speeded up; our industries compete with the multination’s and give them a run for their money in the other countries; infrastructure is adequately developed to facilitate more investments in industries; domestic satellite television channels are attractive enough to wean the people away from the foreign television channels; pollution is effectively checked with industries switching over to clean or environmental-friendly technologies and vehicles checking their emissions; computers play a complementary role in common man’s daily activities by being an integral part of all the homes; sportsmen excel in all the international sports meets and games; religion enforces discip0line and promotes communal harmony; we become a superpower and a member of t he Security Council and are not browbeaten by any other superpower with threats of economic sanctions; and the citizens really feel proud of being Indian.